In order to ensure that children in these situations aren’t left behind by an education system which tends to cater to eh majority and ignore those with unusual circumstances, many schools and education systems adopt a system whereby one-on-one interaction with a teacher trained to deal with their circumstances takes place to make up for shortfalls in standard lessons.
In instances where these unusual cases are less unusual, such as dyslexia (which is actually quite common now), it can even instigate changes to the curriculum to cater to them more directly. In school districts where there are many students who don’t speak English there can also be efforts made more generally to engage all of the students in attendance.
The potential for damage to students whose needs aren’t addressed is significant. Ignoring their needs often causes them to become disenfranchised, which results in a feedback loop which only serves to limit their opportunities to reach their full potential even further. The importance of catering to more diverse requirements among students is growing all the time, and more and more schools will need to begin addressing them.